(PHP 4, PHP 5)
ob_start — Turn on output buffering
$chunk_size= 0 [, bool
$erase= true ]]] )
This function will turn output buffering on. While output buffering is active no output is sent from the script (other than headers), instead the output is stored in an internal buffer.
The contents of this internal buffer may be copied into a string variable using ob_get_contents(). To output what is stored in the internal buffer, use ob_end_flush(). Alternatively, ob_end_clean() will silently discard the buffer contents.
Some web servers (e.g. Apache) change the working directory of a script when calling the callback function. You can change it back by e.g. chdir(dirname($_SERVER['SCRIPT_FILENAME'])) in the callback function.
Output buffers are stackable, that is, you may call ob_start() while another ob_start() is active. Just make sure that you call ob_end_flush() the appropriate number of times. If multiple output callback functions are active, output is being filtered sequentially through each of them in nesting order.
output_callback function may be
specified. This function takes a string as a parameter and should
return a string. The function will be called when
the output buffer is flushed (sent) or cleaned (with
ob_flush(), ob_clean() or similar
function) or when the output buffer
is flushed to the browser at the end of the request. When
output_callback is called, it will receive the
contents of the output buffer as its parameter and is expected to
return a new output buffer as a result, which will be sent to the
browser. If the
output_callback is not a
callable function, this function will return
If the callback function has two parameters, the second parameter is
filled with a bit-field consisting of
input is sent to the browser.
output_callback parameter may be bypassed
by passing a
ob_end_clean(), ob_end_flush(), ob_clean(), ob_flush() and ob_start() may not be called from a callback function. If you call them from callback function, the behavior is undefined. If you would like to delete the contents of a buffer, return "" (a null string) from callback function. You can't even call functions using the output buffering functions like print_r($expression, true) or highlight_file($filename, true) from a callback function.
In PHP 4.0.4, ob_gzhandler() was introduced to facilitate sending gz-encoded data to web browsers that support compressed web pages. ob_gzhandler() determines what type of content encoding the browser will accept and will return its output accordingly.
If the optional parameter
chunk_size is passed, the
buffer will be flushed after any output call which causes the buffer's
length to equal or exceed
chunk_size. The default
value 0 means that the output function will only be
called when the output buffer is closed.
Prior to PHP 5.4.0, the value 1 was a special case value that set the chunk size to 4096 bytes.
If the optional parameter
erase is set to
the buffer will not be deleted until the script finishes.
This causes that flushing and cleaning functions would issue a notice
FALSE if called.
TRUE on success or
FALSE on failure.
|5.4.0||A chunk size of 1 now results in chunks of 1 byte being sent to the output buffer.|
This function was changed to return
Example #1 User defined callback function example
// replace all the apples with oranges
return (str_replace("apples", "oranges", $buffer));
<p>It's like comparing apples to oranges.</p>
The above example will output:
<html> <body> <p>It's like comparing oranges to oranges.</p> </body> </html>